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N activator streptokinase might contribute to contact system activation by S. pyogenes. Here, we report that the human contact system is activated by the action of streptokinase. The role of secreted and surfacebound streptokinase in this process was investigated by comparing an M49 S. pyogenes wild-type strain with its isogenic ska mutant, which is unable to trigger plasmin activity in human plas
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E bradykinin. The nonapeptide has a very short half-life (a matter of seconds) and exhibits its functions via the B1 and B2 receptors (3). Generating other mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, bradykinin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, the induction of fever and pain, vascular leakage, and the chemotaxis of immune cells (4). In addition, further proces
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E bradykinin. The nonapeptide has a very short half-life (a matter of seconds) and exhibits its functions via the B1 and B2 receptors (3). Generating other mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, bradykinin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, the induction of fever and pain, vascular leakage, and the chemotaxis of immune cells (4). In addition, further proces
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Rome and necrotizing fasciitis are associated with high morbidity and mortality (1). Although GAS virulence factors have been studied intensively, the mechanisms by which local infections progress to severe systemic infections are not yet fully understood. The systemic activation of host immune responses has been reported to account for several symptoms seen in septic patients, i.e., hypotension,
1
E bradykinin. The nonapeptide has a very short half-life (a matter of seconds) and exhibits its functions via the B1 and B2 receptors (3). Generating other mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, bradykinin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, the induction of fever and pain, vascular leakage, and the chemotaxis of immune cells (4). In addition, further proces
1
E bradykinin. The nonapeptide has a very short half-life (a matter of seconds) and exhibits its functions via the B1 and B2 receptors (3). Generating other mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, bradykinin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, the induction of fever and pain, vascular leakage, and the chemotaxis of immune cells (4). In addition, further proces
1
Secrete streptokinase in order to accelerate the conversion of human plasminogen to plasmin (12). Lacking enzymatic activity itself, streptokinase evolves its function by forming a stoichiometric 1:1 complex with plasminogen or a trimolecular complex with plasminogen and fibrinogen. The activator complexes can bind at the bacterial surface via host factor receptors and convert other plasminogen mo
1
Secrete streptokinase in order to accelerate the conversion of human plasminogen to plasmin (12). Lacking enzymatic activity itself, streptokinase evolves its function by forming a stoichiometric 1:1 complex with plasminogen or a trimolecular complex with plasminogen and fibrinogen. The activator complexes can bind at the bacterial surface via host factor receptors and convert other plasminogen mo
1
Rome and necrotizing fasciitis are associated with high morbidity and mortality (1). Although GAS virulence factors have been studied intensively, the mechanisms by which local infections progress to severe systemic infections are not yet fully understood. The systemic activation of host immune responses has been reported to account for several symptoms seen in septic patients, i.e., hypotension,
1
Secrete streptokinase in order to accelerate the conversion of human plasminogen to plasmin (12). Lacking enzymatic activity itself, streptokinase evolves its function by forming a stoichiometric 1:1 complex with plasminogen or a trimolecular complex with plasminogen and fibrinogen. The activator complexes can bind at the bacterial surface via host factor receptors and convert other plasminogen mo