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He initial unstimulated conditions (Fig. 6B). Strikingly, HOIP-KR cells showing sustained and enhanced linear ubiquitination exhibited continuously elevated mRNA levels of NF- B-induced genes upon LPS stimulation (Fig. 6B). However, this difference oc-November/December 2015 Volume 6 Issue 6 e01777-?mbio.asm.orgBowman et al.FIG 6 TLR4 stimulation leads to higher NF- B activation in HOIP-KR cells th
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Ltiprotein complexes and activation of downstream targets. To date, more than half of protein-tyrosine kinases have been linked to human cancers caused by constitutively active mutants.58 Despite the promising drugs that specifically target these signaling molecules, clinical efficacy remains low because the mechanisms of signaling pathways are not fully understood. During clinical application, dr
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Identify the real risk variants. Many GWAS have identified regions of the genome associated with AD, but in many cases the real risk/causal changes are not known. Additionally, in the cases where SNPs have been associated with a disease, these SNPs identified may in fact be in LD with the real variants causing the association. Further functional data, (for instance, the effects of a determined var
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S spanning a 4 Mbp region. A search of the S. tropicalis genome for MHC genes has revealed a total of 122 genes found in 8 genomic scaffolds encompassing 3.65Mbp. The overall genomic organization is remarkably similar to that of human MHC with some block inversions (Ohta et al., 2006). Yet, the Xenopus MHC demonstrates unique features of which some may be primordial: (1) a single MHC class I gen
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S spanning a 4 Mbp region. A search of the S. tropicalis genome for MHC genes has revealed a total of 122 genes found in 8 genomic scaffolds encompassing 3.65Mbp. The overall genomic organization is remarkably similar to that of human MHC with some block inversions (Ohta et al., 2006). Yet, the Xenopus MHC demonstrates unique features of which some may be primordial: (1) a single MHC class I gen
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Plication. However, since several of the chlamydial effectors as well as other chaperones (CT274 and CT260) apparently "stand alone" in the genome, this cannot be considered anomalous. On the contrary, the scattering of type-III related ORFs is certainly one of the distinguishing features of the chlamydial T3SS. It is possible that CT043 represents a multi-cargo effector chaperone, and like CesT's
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Plication. However, since several of the chlamydial effectors as well as other chaperones (CT274 and CT260) apparently "stand alone" in the genome, this cannot be considered anomalous. On the contrary, the scattering of type-III related ORFs is certainly one of the distinguishing features of the chlamydial T3SS. It is possible that CT043 represents a multi-cargo effector chaperone, and like CesT's
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EgA5 and LegA12, as well as candidate substrates, SdeB (a paralog of SidE) and SdhB (a paralog of SidH) (Figs. 3B and 3C). Of the ones causing mild effects, the most striking IDTS was VpdA, which showed 14-fold induction of the reporter despite being poorly expressed (Fig. 3A and 3B). Of the 159 L. pneumophila genes screened, expression of two candidate L. pneumophila IDTS LegK1 and Lpg2527 caused
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Les provided here, the impact of GO on isolated macrophages or macrophage-like cells was investigated. While such studies may provide important insights regarding the mode of entry of GO into cells and on the signaling pathways affected following cellular interactions, studies in living organisms are needed to assess the overall response to GO and the interplay between both arms of the immune syst
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Les provided here, the impact of GO on isolated macrophages or macrophage-like cells was investigated. While such studies may provide important insights regarding the mode of entry of GO into cells and on the signaling pathways affected following cellular interactions, studies in living organisms are needed to assess the overall response to GO and the interplay between both arms of the immune syst